Monday, December 2, 2019

US Expansion Of 1800s Essay Example For Students

US Expansion Of 1800s Essay Throughout the first half of the 1800s or 19th century there were manyfactors influencing United States expansion. From the Louisiana Purchase in 1803to the Gadsden Purchase in 1853 the United States had tripled in size since itsoriginal thirteen colonies and only paid forty-five million dollars in doing so. The idea of Manifest Destiny spread quickly throughout the country and soonthousands were moving westward in search of a new way of life. The idea ofManifest Destiny was for the U.S. to occupy the entire continent. The onlyproblem was that the land it was expanding on to didnt belong to the U.S. Onesuch factor that influenced the expansion of the U.S. was the occupation ofnearby territories by foreign countries. The largest territory and first one tobe bought by the U.S. was the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. In order for theUnited States to expand successfully into the west they needed control of theMississippi River, which at the time was owned by France. The port at NewOrleans was extremely important to the navigation of the Mississippi andprovided a good market for trade. While this purchase was very successful,others did not go as well. Prior to the Mexican Cession of 1848 the UnitedStates and Mexico were having boundary disputes over where the Texas boarderexisted. President Polk reacted by sending troops into Mexico to protect theTexas boundary lines. A year and a half later Mexico surrendered and Texas wasgranted the Rio Grande border line in the Treaty of Guadalupe. Because of thedifferent nations or countries that owned land on the continent, the U.S. wasforced to purchase or fight for the land it wanted. This caused the newlyacquired territories to have a more diverse group of people, which affected thesocial development of the nation as a whole. Another huge factor that played arole in expansion was that of available resources. As the people began to movewestward they would settle in areas with vast amounts of natural resources suchas lakes or streams, where they could gather food. Lakes were very important totravel because they provided drinking water for the people and attracted wildanimals to the area, which could be hunted for food. Also if an area were to dryor rocky it wouldnt be settled. People looked for the best places to live,places they coul d profit from the most. During the gold rush everyone traveledto the western coast in hopes of becoming rich for the very same reason. Thisfactor affected the economical and social development of the U.S. becausecertain areas or regions would produce specific products. Different types ofpeople would also live in the separate areas depending on wealth or trade thatthe family specified in. The third and maybe the greatest factor affecting themigration across the land was geography. Mountains, rivers, lakes, plains, andin some cases canyons were among the biggest impediments for people moving outwest. At first people began to settle beyond the Appalachian Mountains andslowly moved westward towards the Mississippi River. Here they had to cross withtheir belongings safely without sinking them or getting them wet. Next they hadto cross the Great Plains that stretched on for miles and miles without food orwater. Depending on the time of year it was the weather conditions variedsometimes ma king it impossible to travel because of snow or heavy fog. Finally,the Rocky Mountains stood in their path. Being the only obstacle left betweenthem and the Pacific Ocean, the Rocky Mountains were the most difficult to pass. .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513 , .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513 .postImageUrl , .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513 , .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513:hover , .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513:visited , .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513:active { border:0!important; } .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513:active , .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513 .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue83fb4bc8b003614e2ad9f610a39b513:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Romeo And Juliet (637 words) Essay We will write a custom essay on US Expansion Of 1800s specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Travelers would be lost or stranded in the mountains with no food for weeks,sometimes turning to cannibalism. Many people died from disease and starvationduring their difficult trip west proving it to be virtually impossible to reachthe other side of the continent. These natural barriers slowed the progress ofexpansion across America and isolated groups of people traveling, causing themto settle where they were. Because of this, small towns or villages formed alongthe routes west. The geography also contributed to the social development ofAmerica as the barriers isolated people and kept the economy the same indifferent sections of the country. This had many bad affects on the economies insome areas where the people were dependent upon one thing resource, crop, orproduct. During the time of expansion large areas of land were given to theUnited States from foreign countries. Great Britain contributed the most land tothe U.S. through treaties especially at the end of the Revolutionary W ar. Francesold the Louisiana territory to the U.S. inexpensively and Spain also soldFlorida to the United States in the Adams-Onis treaty. Every foreign nationsigned a treaty with the U.S. agreeing to sell their land claims in thecontinent, except for Mexico. Mexico caused the most problems politically,economically, and socially. The United States went to war with Mexico overTexass boundaries and won, taking Texas and the people with it. Through thepolitical confrontation with Mexico the U.S. changed its own economic and socialdevelopment by bringing Mexicans into the country. With every purchase or treatythe U.S. made they took in more and more people from other countries changingthe social development country. This is why other nations played the greatestrole in the development and expansion of the United States

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

How the Mongols Took Over Baghdad in 1258

How the Mongols Took Over Baghdad in 1258 It took just thirteen days for the Ilkhanate Mongols and their allies to bring the Golden Age of Islam crashing down.  Eye-witnesses reported that the mighty Tigris River ran black with ink from the precious books and documents destroyed along with the Grand Library of Baghdad, or Bayt al-Hikmah.  Nobody knows for sure how many citizens of the Abbasid Empire died; estimates range from 90,000 to 200,000 up to 1,000,000.  In two short weeks, the seat of learning and culture for the entire Muslim world was conquered and ruined. Baghdad had been a sleepy fishing village on the Tigris before it was promoted to the status of the capital city by the great Abbasid caliph al-Mansur in 762.  His grandson, Harun al-Rashid, subsidized scientists, religious scholars, poets, and artists, who flocked to the city and made it an academic jewel of the medieval world.  The scholars and writers produced countless manuscripts and books between the late 8th century and 1258.  These books were written on a new technology imported from China after the Battle of Talas River, a technology called paper.  Soon, most of the people of Baghdad were literate and well-read. Mongols Unite Far to the east of Baghdad, meanwhile, a young warrior called Temujin managed to unite the Mongols and took the title Genghis Khan.  It would be his grandson, Hulagu, who would push the boundaries of the Mongol Empire into what is now Iraq and Syria.  Hulagus primary purpose was to solidify his grip on the heartland of the Ilkhanate in Persia.  He first completely annihilated the fanatical Shiite group known as the Assassins, destroying their mountain-top stronghold in Persia, and then marched south to demand that the Abbasids capitulate. The Caliph Mustasim heard rumors of the Mongols advance but was confident that the entire Muslim world would rise up to defend its ruler if need be.  However, the Sunni caliph had recently insulted his Shiite subjects, and his own Shiite grand vizier, al-Alkamzi, may have even invited the Mongols to attack the poorly-led caliphate. Late in 1257, Hulagu sent a message to Mustasim demanding that he open the gates of Baghdad to the Mongols and their Christian allies from Georgia.  Mustasim replied that the Mongol leader should return to where he came from.  Hulagus mighty army marched on, surrounding the Abbasid capital, and slaughtering the caliphs army that sallied out to meet them.   The Mongols Attack Baghdad held out for twelve more days, but it could not withstand the Mongols.  Once the citys walls fell, the hordes rushed in and collected mountains of silver, gold, and jewels.  Hundreds of thousands of Baghdadis died, slaughtered by Hulagus troops or their Georgian allies.  Books from the Bayt al-Hikmah, or House of Wisdom, were thrown into the Tigris, supposedly, so many that a horse could have walked across the river on them. The caliphs beautiful palace of exotic woods was burned to the ground, and the caliph himself was executed.  The Mongols believed that spilling royal blood could cause natural disasters like earthquakes.  Just to be safe, they wrapped Mustasim in a carpet and rode their horses over him, trampling him to death. The fall of Baghdad signaled the end of the Abbasid Caliphate.  It was also the high point of Mongol conquest in the Middle East.  Distracted by their own dynastic politics, the Mongols made a half-hearted attempt to conquer Egypt but were defeated at the Battle of Ayn Jalut in 1280.  The Mongol Empire would grow no further in the Middle East.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Praying Mantis Egg Case

Praying Mantis Egg Case Have you ever found a brown, Styrofoam-like mass on a shrub in your garden? As the leaves begin to fall in autumn, people often find these odd-looking formations on their garden plants and wonder what they are. Many people guess that its a cocoon of some kind. Although this is a sign of insect activity, its not a cocoon. This foamy structure is the egg case of a praying mantis. Soon after mating, a female praying mantis deposits a mass of eggs on a twig or other suitable structure. She may lay just a few dozen eggs or as many as four hundred at one time. Using special accessory glands on her abdomen, the mother mantid then covers her eggs with a frothy substance, which hardens quickly to a consistency similar to Styrofoam. This egg case is called an ootheca. A single female mantid may produce several oothecae (the plural of ootheca) after mating just once. Praying mantids typically lay their eggs in late summer or fall, and the young develop within the ootheca over the winter months. The foamy case insulates the offspring from the cold and provides them with some protection from predators. Tiny mantid nymphs hatch from their eggs while still inside the egg case. Depending on environmental variables and the species, the nymphs may take 3-6 months to emerge from the ootheca. In spring or early summer, the young mantids make their way out of the protective foam case, hungry and ready to hunt other small invertebrates. They immediately begin to disperse in search of food. If you find an ootheca in the fall or winter, you may be tempted to bring it indoors. Be forewarned that the warmth of your home will feel like spring to the baby mantids waiting to emerge! You probably dont want 400 miniature mantids running up your walls. If you do collect an ootheca in the hope of watching it hatch, keep it in your refrigerator to simulate winter temperatures, or better yet, in an unheated shed or detached garage. When spring arrives, you can place the ootheca in a terrarium or box to observe the emergence. But dont keep the young nymphs confined. They emerge in hunting mode and will eat their siblings without hesitation. Let them disperse in your garden, where they will help with pest control. Its usually possible to identify the mantid species by its egg case. If youre interested in identifying mantid egg cases you find, includes photographs of the most common mantid oothecae found in North America. The egg case  shown above is from a Chinese mantid (Tenodera sinensis  sinensis). This species is a native of China and other parts of  Asia but is well-established in North America. Commercial biocontrol suppliers sell Chinese mantid egg cases to gardeners and nurseries who want to use mantids for pest control. Sources Tracks and Sign of Insects and Other Invertebrates, by Charley Eiseman and Noah CharneyBugs Rule: An Introduction to the World of Insects, by Whitney Cranshaw and Richard RedakPraying Mantid Care Sheet, Amateur Entomologists Society website. Accessed online September 15, 2014.Ootheca, Amateur Entomologists Society website. Accessed online September 15, 2014.Carolina Mantid Ootheca, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, website. Accessed online September 15, 2014.Ootheca, Museum Victoria website.   Accessed online September 15, 2014.Subspecies Tenodera sinensis sinensis - Chinese Mantis, Accessed online September 15, 2014.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Thrasymachus and Justice in Plato's Political Philosophy Research Paper

Thrasymachus and Justice in Plato's Political Philosophy - Research Paper Example Distinguished sophist of ancient Greece Thrasymachus has elucidated the term justice while entering into discussion on the same topic with great philosopher Socrates, which has been elaborated by Socrates’ renowned disciple Plato in his Republic. Book I of the Republic encompasses the debate between Thrasymachus and Socrates, where the former makes two assertions about justice. At first, he declares the notion as mere the ‘advantage of the strong over the weak’; and secondly he views justice as ‘submitting to the prevailing statutes of the state law.’ (Hourani, 111) The powerful governments, according to Thrasymachus, strive to implement their policies by dint of the force they enjoy in comparison with the weaker states; consequently, the policy is expected to be observed and followed by all the weak nations. As a result, it becomes the law, which is unconditionally and unanimously imitated by all. Consequently, it is equally beneficial for the weaker due to the very reality that it would be obeyed by all the weak without discrimination, and hence will become a law for all individuals. The sophist also argues that justice imposes unnecessary restrains on the human desires, and thus it does not turn out to be advantageous for the majority of the people in general. Hence, on the one side, Thrasymachus defines justice as the exploitation of the weak individual(s) or stratum at the hands of the powerful; and on the other side, he declares it as the abiding of the uniform law, which looks at everyone on the foundations of equality and impartiality. Thus, stronger group signifies the elite or ruling stratum of society, while the weak can be compared to the masses at large. Since the stronger stratum not only articulates the rules and laws, but also abides the same rules it has devised for all, these statutes of law are supportive for the protection of the rights of the weaker too. Somehow, Socrates points out contradiction in the very definition of justice Thrasymachus has developed. Consequently, it invites criticism from Socrates because of the contradiction it contains in its very scope. Socrates, during his cross examination of the very arguments made by Thrasymachus, vehemently refutes the validity of his viewpoint. He is of the opinion that since the individuals, even from the strong and ruling classes, are humans, and hence can make mistakes, they cannot be expected to devise error free laws, policies and strategies. On the other hand, even their most sincere efforts can maintain flaws and mistakes while devising the laws; so these statutes, in the form of advantages and privileges for the stronger, are unable to present the real picture of justice in their nature and scope. Somehow, Thrasymachus counters Socrates’ objection by stating that the rulers are free from making errors or committing mistakes till they are at the helm of the power. And even if they commit they same, there is no one to chal lenge or point out their mistakes till they are enjoying the position of rulers. In other words, the weaker strata do not have the power to put even the incorrect rules into jeopardy. Consequently, they remain as the laws of the country till the individuals, introducing the same, are in the power. (Bloom, 25) Being one of the greatest logicians the world has ever produced, Socrates could not submit to the Thrasymachus’ claim that rules and laws are devised for the benefit of the rulers only. On the other hand, he clarifies his objection with the example that the artwork is created for the consumers and public, and not for the use of the artisan. Similarly, the shopkeeper involves into trade and merchandise by bringing commodities for the people. It is therefore, justice carries advantages for the common man at first, and hence cannot be attributed to the dominant political group only. Socrates also cites the professional abilities and proficiencies of the

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

What is Justice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

What is Justice - Essay Example In that context, it will be really interesting to delve on the concept of justice in a lay and historical context. The laity tends to predominantly associate the term justice with fairness. In a general context, by justice, people tend to mean and expect to be treated fairly as a citizen and as a human in all spheres of public life. By justice, people expect not to be discriminated against owing to any personal or social attributes like race, ethnicity, gender, age and other political or social affiliations. In a biblical context, some principles tend to be rooted in the very essence of the concept of justice. As per Bible, justice is rooted in the very nature of God and, hence, humans should desist from dispensing justice as an omnipotent and all knowing entity (Greenberg, 1995). Hence, Bible facilitates a very liberal approach towards human justice, that extends due leverage to all the sides engaged in a dispute. Bibles envisages justice in the light of relationships and tends to settle the respective jurisdictions for the church, the state, the family and varied other constituents of the society (Greenberg, 1995). The Hebrews considered the God to be just and the one who expected his adherents to be just. The biblical idea of justice is rooted in the Covenant, which expects the believers to retain justice in interpersonal relationships otherwise they stood the chance of being judged. Plato gives much importance to the concept of justice in his works. Plato’s concept of justice is amply akin to the notions of ethics or morality that includes within its ambit all the duties of a man both as a citizen and as a family member (Parry, 1996). As per Plato, justice happened to be the virtuous aspect of the soul, before which men were expected to set aside the irrational desire to taste all pleasures (Parry, 1996). Hence, to a great extent, the Platonic concept of justice laid down the condition for exercising

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Life-Based Leadership Principles from Jack Welch Essay Example for Free

Life-Based Leadership Principles from Jack Welch Essay During the hundreds of millions of years of natural evolution on this planet, survival has always been a continuous challenge for living creatures. It has recently to come into light that in the past four million years, there have been scores of human species on the earth, besides us homo sapiens. However, all of these various human-like beings including the Neanderthal man perished in the course of evolution; we humans have outlived all of them. We have emerged as the true survivors. We are the last â€Å"man† standing. However, in the whole history of the world, survival could have never been as tough as it is in today’s world of big business. It is an ever-changing, dizzingly fast-paced, intensely competitive and danger-saturated environment out there. There are many survivors and many winners in this arena, of course. Of all such exceptional people in the recent decades, there is one man who stands out as a celebrated icon of leadership and business success. And it is none other than Jack Welch of GE, arguably the finest CEO in the latter half of the twentieth century. Speaking from a broad perspective, he is not just an exemplary business leader, but a hero, a survivor, a symbol of the triumph of man. Jack Welch is a man who believed that each individual should control his or her own destiny. Welch sums up his conviction thus: â€Å"Today, I see winning as people defining their objectives and fulfilling them, not being a victim. You define where you want to go, and then you go for it ([emailprotected]) And from the depth of this belief perhaps sprang the secret of his greatness. Starting from the early Eighties, Jack Welch, CEO of the General Electric Corporation, has led his company through one of the most revolutionary and far-reaching changes ever witnessed in modern business history. Having taken GE with a market capitalization of about $12 billion, Jack Welch turned it into one of the largest and most admired companies in the world, with a market value of about $500 billion, when he stepped down as its CEO 20 years later, in 2000. Although Jack Welch was the legendary leader of a global manufacturing giant noted for its technological might and superiority, he has utilized a very human process to drive change through GEs vast organization. He honoured the individual above all, and the humanity of the individual. To him, the individual was the pivotal force in bringing about organizational change. And for the major part of his immensely successful career at the helm of GE he relentlessly embraced change. It was change that made GE businesses leaders in their markets, added profitable, productive businesses to GEs family, and tapped the brains of knowledgeable employees. Welch worked for change, and change worked for him. Jack Welch of course knew how difficult change could be. Nevertheless he viewed change as his only real chance to transform GE into the kind of top-notch competitive enterprise that he wanted it to be. Only through continuously undergoing massive changes, GE could win, and Jack Welch firmly believed in winning. He wanted to be a winner. And winners were not afraid to make changes. However, pursuit of change, empowerment of individuals, and such principles are only part of a broder human-centric principles of successful leadership in which Jack Welch passionately believed in. Welch’s original approach to management and leadership, which proved so successful in transforming GE could be summed up unders six heads: Control your destiny, or someone else will. Welchs first maxim became the title of a semi-autobiographic bestseller that described the revolution at GE. The basic approach that Welch followed to carry out a dramatic revolution at GE was to trust the individual and let him or her believe in their own desitiny. Welsh believed in delegating authority freely, fairly and responsibly, within the company. In a general context, however, while no mere human being can have absolute control over his or her destiny, the point is to take total personal responsibility for one’s own life and actions, and assume intelligent control of the course of things. 2. Face reality as it is, not as it was or as you wish it were. Facing reality is tough. Facing reality means looking directly into suffering, failure, inadequacy of ourselves, others, and the world, something which we human beings are programmed to avoid. When corporations do not face simple realities, however, such as their products costing more to produce and being worthless than those of their competitors, market share and profits drop, the company and its employees suffer. Welch saw all these things happening at GE. Only when we are ready to honestly examine ourselves and acknowledge our shortcomings, will we be able to do anything about them. Acceptance can lead to transformation. 3. Be candid with everyone. Traditional wisdom says that honesty is the best policy. This home-spun truth has great relevance in today’s hyper-modern corporate settings. Welch strove to create an atmosphere at GE where people could effortlessly speak up to somebody in authority, who could then do something about their problems. It is an atmosphere, it is in the air of GE. Welch himself regularly spoke with front-line employees on the plant floor. Welch was equally open to hear both the good and bad things about GE. Honesty, sincerity and candor: they have their own rewards. In a bureaucracy, people are afraid to speak out. This type of environment slows you down, and it doesnt improve the workplace, says Jack Welch. He therefore calls for promoting a corporate culture that appreciates and rewards honest feedback. You reinforce the behaviors that you reward. If you reward candor, youll get it. 4. Dont manage, lead. Welch abhorred a strictly hierarchical type of management built on the concept of control. To Welch, managers should become leaders who show the way to other people by inpsiring and motivating them. Instead of controlling and exploiting workers, leaders should liberate and empower them. Do not push and pull your employees at every opportunity, gently guide them towards greater possibility. Welch’s leadership philosophy continues to be very simple: empower others, ask questions, tap into the potential of all of your associates, choose integrity and candor over charts, graphs, and politics, and spend more time in action instead of planning and posturing budgets. 5. Change before you have to. That is to say, proactivity. One has to be able to look ahead and predict changes that future is going to necessitate. In the context of a business organization, it is far better to change early those things in a company that need to be changed to stay competitive, when there is still plenty of time, rather than forcibly having to change them later when an adverse reality in form of failure and loss thrusts itself in the face of the organization. Welch was fond of yelling across the table at meetings, Change, before its too late! 6. If you dont have a competitive advantage, dont compete. Welch often quoted his business maxim that every division at GE had to be number one or number two or get out of that specific business. In the 1980s, Welch was convinced that inflation would soon become rampant thereby slowing down economic growth. The elimination of the old-line businesses was not going to be an easy job in terms of loss of jobs and lowering of morale that it implied. But Welch had to do what he had to do. The Number 1 or number 2 philosophy – as ruthless as it sounds – had been critical for GE to grow and survive in the modern world.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Child Abuse and Neglect Essay -- Violence Against Children

â€Å"If she doesn’t acknowledge what happened then how can you trust that she is going to be different in the future† - Dr. Phil. I believe that means that if your mom abuses you or hurts you any type of away and says nothing of it than you never know if it might happen in the future. But forgiveness goes along way with you life in question. My career pathway is law enforcement. Sooner or later I will have to deal with cases like these. Child abuse cases is something really no law enforcement agent will want to deal with. Child abuse is physical, emotional, or sometimes god forbid sexual. No matter what field of law enforcement you can still run into a child abuse case. Form DEA, CPS, investigators and forensics and so on Child occurs because of a lot of reasons. There is anger issues, to have something to vent and take all your anger out on. Also an unwanted/mistake kid so to show the child they aren't wanted where they are at. To prove dominance, to show you are the ruler of them and their whole life. In law enforcement the steps to take in a possible child abuse case. First you observe the child and his environment. Look for visible injuries how he acts, body languages means a lot and speaks untold words. Then you take a report and gather up all you need to make a case. After you get all you need and it makes a good case you then send it over to CPS Physical abuse is causing any bodily harm that exceeds out side of the jurisdiction of legal punishment. Legal punishment includes grounding, whupping with a belt or hand that goes from the small of the back to the back if the thigh, but it doesn’t include whup with a extension cord or punching. Emotional abuse is purposely hurting a child that doesn’t have physical attacks....>. Karkola, Kari, Kauppi Marika, Leena Anne, Juhani Merikanto, and Tuija Vanamo. "Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse.." Mental Illness, 1 Oct 2012. Web. 12 Feb 2014. Kriel, Lomi. "One of Houston's worst child-abuse cases tough to unravel.", 13 May 2012. Web. 12 Feb 2014. . Iannelli, M.D., Vincent. "Child Abuse - Child Abuse Cases and Stories.", 07 Apr 2013. Web. 13 Feb 2014. . "Child Abuse."  kidshealth. Nemours, n.d. Web. 18 Feb 2014.